María Elena Valverde et al. (2015) published this article under the open-access Creative Commons Attribution License, allowing unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided proper citation of the original work.

Introduction

Globally, people celebrate mushrooms for their unique flavors, positioning them as gourmet ingredients in various cuisines. There are around 2,000 different kinds of wild mushrooms, but only approximately 25 are widely eaten, and only a small number are deliberately grown for commercial gain. Mushrooms are regarded as delicacies with substantial nutritional and functional value, and they are valued for their sensory appeal, medical qualities, and economic relevance. As a result, they earn recognition as nutraceutical foods.

Agaricus bisporus takes the lead as one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms, closely followed by Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus species, and Flormulina velutipes

Mushrooms, including primary metabolites like peptides, proteins, and oxalic acid, as well as secondary metabolites such as terpenes, steroids, and derivatives of benzoic acid, present a potential source of novel antimicrobial chemicals. Lentinus edodes, extensively studied, demonstrates antibacterial properties against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

In terms of nutrition, mushrooms are rich in protein, fiber, essential amino acids, and vital fatty acids, while being low in fat. They offer significant amounts of various vitamins (B1, B2, B12, C, D, and E). This remarkable nutritional profile positions edible mushrooms as a valuable source of nutraceuticals. Their bioactive compounds, when consumed, can provide synergistic health benefits, supporting overall well-being.

Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting
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2. Mushroom: Findings and Discussion

2.1. Value of Nutrition. Edible mushrooms are considered nutritious because of their high protein, fiber content, low fat content, and vitamin and mineral content [8, 10]. Because they provide more protein than most vegetables and all the necessary amino acids needed by adults, mushrooms are a great addition to vegetarian diets. Additionally, edible mushrooms are rich in a variety of bioactive substances that have a range of positive effects on human health.

It is noteworthy to mention that the growth traits,

Early and postharvest circumstances may have an impact on edible mushrooms’ nutritional content and chemical makeup.

Significant differences also exist between and within species [29, 30].Mushrooms have a high moisture content, roughly ranging from 80 to 95 grams per 100 grams. Edible mushrooms, as previously indicated, are a significant source of protein, with 200–250 g/kg of dry matter; the most common amino acids are aspartic, valine, glutamine, glutamic, and glutamine. Due to their linoleic acid content and low fat content (20–30 g/kg of dry matter), mushrooms are low in calories.The two primary fatty acids are palmitic (C16:0) and oleic (C18:1). High concentrations of ash—80–120 g/kg of dry matter—found in edible mushrooms are mostly composed of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, copper, iron, and zinc. Edible mushrooms contain a high concentration of carbohydrates, such as chitin, glycogen, trehalose, and mannitol, in addition to fiber, 𝛽-glucans, hemicelluloses, and pectic materials. Furthermore, fructose and sucrose are present in small amounts in farmed edible mushrooms, although glucose, mannitol, and trehalose are the main sugars.In addition, mushrooms contain significant concentrations of riboflavin (vitamin B2).

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𝛽-glucans are well known for their biological activity, specifically related to the immune system. Hence, activating and reinforcing the host immune system seems to be the best strategy for inhibiting the growth of cancer cells [17, 51]. 2.2.2. Proteins.

2.3. Main Edible Mushrooms Worldwide

Agaricus, 2.3.1. The Agaricus species’ A. bisporus is the most widely grown mushroom globally (Figure 1). This group of edible mushrooms is currently being extensively utilized and researched for their therapeutic and medical benefits [40, 63, 64]. It has been discovered that a lectin from A. bisporus and a protein from A. polytricha are strong immune stimulants; as a result, these macromolecules may be used in medicine, and these fungi may be categorized as nutritious foods. It has been demonstrated that A. bisporus extract inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation [5, 65, 66].The edible mushroom A. blazei is endemic to Brazil and has been grown, particularly in Japan. Due to its medicinal qualities, this widely used basidiomycete, often known as “sun mushroom,” is today consumed as food or in tea all over the world. Its fruit bodies are immunostimulative, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic [67, 68]; its extracts have likewise demonstrated antimutagenic, immunomodulatory, and anticarcinogenic qualities [69]. Furthermore, it has been noted that this mushroom inhibits the peroxidation of liver lipids.

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